Diabetics And Risk Of Hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) is a common occurrence in patients who have diabetes. Hypoglycemia occurs when the blood glucose level drops too low to provide energy for the body and the brain. Hypoglycemia mainly happens as a complication of insulin therapy, however, some of the pills that are used in the treatment of diabetes could also cause hypoglycemia. also know more about hypoglycemia causes

The commonest reason for the development of hypoglycemia is a combination of excessive use of insulin and irregular diet. Often the diabetic person may be injecting insulin but not eating sufficiently or in a timely manner and this can result in low blood sugar or hypoglycemia.

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Common symptoms of hypoglycemia include hunger, nausea, and vomiting. You may be baffled with nervousness and develop shakiness from hypoglycemia. You may experience profuse sweating while encountering an episode of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia may lead to confusion and even coma.

Hypoglycemia could also occur in sleep. This may happen if a diabetic person takes too much insulin at night, Symptoms of hypoglycemia that may occur in sleep may include nightmares, crying out spells. Sometimes the only finding is to discover your nighttime pants, pajamas, or bed sheet to become wet from perspiration at night. Diabetic patients who experience hypoglycemia during the night might be tired, irritable, or confused when they wake up.

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When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon, another hormone produced by the pancreas, signals the liver to break down glycogen and launch glucose, causing blood glucose levels to rise toward a normal level. With repeated episodes of hypoglycemia, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia may get blunted, making it harder for your glucose levels to return to the normal range. Also, the warning symptoms of nausea, sweating, faintness may fail to occur with repeat episodes of hypoglycemia.

Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can impair the body’s ability to respond to low blood sugar in the future. This impairment can allow an individual to develop severe hypoglycemia in which they may lose consciousness, experience convulsions, fall into a coma, and experience brain damage or even die.

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Patients who are on insulin treatment should be aware of these potential complications. If you are consuming insulin or other diabetic medications you should be aware of the risks of hypoglycemia. You should take the medication in the recommended doses. Do not compensate for a missed dose with a double dose of medication. You should maintain a strict dietary schedule so that episodes of hypoglycemia could be avoided.

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Those Who Suffer From Hypoglycemia

Responding to a problem like hypoglycemia requires information. Know what hypoglycemia is all about and know what hits those who suffer from hypoglycemia. Also know more about what is hypoglycemia

What is hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia is the opposite of diabetes. It is a condition where people are found deficient of sugar in their blood. Ironically, hypoglycemia can often be found from among the ranks of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics. The reason for this is that medication or diet for diabetics sometimes results in very low levels of blood sugar. However, hypoglycemia has many known causes; it can also affect anybody, not only diabetics. There are cases when people who fast or are starving may develop low blood glucose. Hypoglycemia can be a temporary disorder and can be resolved easily by restoring food or protein intake to normal levels.

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People often mistakenly think that something sweet should be given to those having hypoglycemia to cure their deficiency. What is not fully understood is the fact that those who suffer from hypoglycemia usually lack protein and a protein-rich food is what they need to fix their problem. An example of a protein-rich food is peanut butter. Peanut butter effectively helps alleviate the condition of those who suffer from hypoglycemia.

But hypoglycemia can hit a person for various reasons; it can also worsen like a disease. Diabetics who suffer from hypoglycemia contract the disease as a result of a reaction to insulin or diet. Other people may experience hypoglycemia occasionally, oftentimes caused by not being able to eat properly.

When a person suffers from hypoglycemia he or she shows signs that include anxiety, shakiness, sweating, heart palpitations, coldness, dilated pupils, clamminess, feeling of fainting, among other symptoms. These symptoms result from the loss of sugar that triggers reactions affecting the brain. Unless treated in time, people who suffer from hypoglycemia may succumb to diabetic coma and, in most serious cases, die. Basic treatment consists of giving those who suffer from hypoglycemia food that is rich in protein to keep them from fainting or even falling into a coma.

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Other manifestations of hypoglycemia may include abdominal pain, vomiting, and hunger. When the disorder remains untreated, a person who suffers from hypoglycemia may exhibit neurological symptoms like speaking difficulties, slurred speech, anxiety, fatigue, delirium, lethargy, stupor, headache, abnormal breathing and, at their most extreme, coma.

Doctors go about treating hypoglycemia by knowing, firstly, the circumstances that led to the disease. They need to conduct a physical examination of patients that includes taking of blood samples. But most hypoglycemia cases remain unexplained because blood samples cannot be taken before glucose levels are restored to normal levels.

One good thing about hypoglycemia is that it often is not a dangerous disease or disorder. In a majority of cases, hypoglycemia simply results from fasting or malnutrition. Not a few people suffer from hypoglycemia without even knowing it has hit them. It becomes a serious problem only when its symptoms continue to persist, which then would require medical help to determine its underlying causes in order to respond to it effectively.

By and large, hypoglycemia emerges from various reasons and those who show its symptoms would be well advised to seek medical help to find out what caused it. It is the best way one can respond to the illness if it continues to linger. In many cases, though, the causes of hypoglycemia remain unknown and often the problem gets resolved even without treatment.

Protect Your Investment From Coatings Failure

One of the common reasons for the need for periodic repair and maintenance in a facility is when epoxy coatings failure occurs. Facility managers are pressed to allocate the needed budget and tolerate the amount of work disruption required to repair the coatings failure, because of the negative effects in the facility if the coatings failure is not rectified as soon as possible.

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Epoxy coatings failure occurs for many reasons, foremost among them is the coating system’s constant interaction with various elements in the surroundings. Understanding the major causes of coating failure leads to better choices of coatings material, more careful surface preparation and application, ultimately reducing the occurrence of disruptive coatings failures in the facility. Visit to know about different types of Coatings here Plasma Coating and Air Plasma Spray Coating

Coatings Failure Due to the Elements

The natural and constantly interacting forces of sun, air, and water are the most frequent causes of failure in facilities. Sunlight can breakdown the chemical composition of the coatings, and daily exposure to the sun’s rays combined with chemical deterioration can lead to coatings failures. The careful selection of ultraviolet-resistant epoxy coatings products can withstand the sun’s onslaught far longer than ordinary coatings material.

The presence of water, even in small quantities, is also another cause of premature coatings failure. Concrete surfaces are particularly vulnerable because they retain water much longer, and damp areas can never be totally dried out. Water interaction with high humidity also produces moisture that causes coatings to fail after some time.

Some facilities are always submerged in water, wherein standard coatings will simply fail. The solution? A new breed of solvent-free coatings whose epoxy formulation actually repels water, ideal for underwater structures.Get more info on Coatings here.

Coatings Failure from Surface Particles

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Slightly lesser in frequency than elemental causes, particulate matters are also one of the major causes of coatings failure in facilities. If surfaces are not properly prepared or cleaned prior to coating application, the presence of dust, dirt, grease and other foreign particles hinder the epoxy coatings from totally bonding with the surface to be coated. The lesser adhesion of the applied coatings increases the possibility of premature coatings failure.

In steel surfaces, the presence of nearly-invisible salt deposits often remain despite surface sandblasting, attacking the metal surface underneath the epoxy coatings, causing irreversible corrosion and eventual failure. Surface preparation through hydro blasting can remove these residual particles.

Other Causes of Coatings Failure

Solvents sometimes help in dissolving foreign particles in epoxy coatings, but the downside to using solvents in epoxy coatings is that they can often result in surface ridges in coated surfaces where there are thick coatings. If the coated surface dried too quickly, trapped solvents underneath will form these ridges and cause the topcoat to fail. The only solution is to use solvent-free epoxy coatings.

Other causes of failure are the inherent brittleness of phenolic coatings that crack when surfaces move, expand, or contract. When coatings crack, they open the surface to corrosion and moisture damages. To solve brittleness, the epoxy coatings product must have good elongation properties. Porous epoxy coatings, on the other hand, lead to blistering because water or chemicals are freely absorbed by the coatings. Knowledge of non-porous coatings and their application can help lessen the risk of failure.

What Makes the Successful Entrepreneur Successful?

Although entrepreneurship was once seen as the choice for people who did not have a career path, the fall of the economy and many more issues have people all over the world considering whether or not it is the path for them.

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While these issues can cause the path of an entrepreneur to be a rocky one, it is possible to become successful. What traits do the successful entrepreneurs share? Well let’s take a look.Want some info about How to get motivated then you could visit Best Motivational Speaker In India and Motivational Speaker In Mumbai

Be Grounded

Many may view the successful entrepreneur as an eccentric and strange person who is “off to himself, ” but the truth is that he is often a very grounded person. For example, if most people were to suddenly inherit a great deal of money, they would lose touch with reality for a bit and likely make several bad choices.

For the successful entrepreneur, however, the possibility of gaining a lot of money all at once is a good once, but he or she also knows that money could be lost just as quickly. The successful entrepreneur has literally pulled himself up from the bottom, and knows how easy it is to fall back down. For that and more reasons, they are often more grounded than many would believe.Get more info about How to become a Successful Entrepreneur here .

Be Self-Disciplined

While you may think that working for yourself would be the fairytale career, with no one to answer to, it requires a great deal of self-discipline to pull it off. Since there is no boss, no fear of being fired, and no time clock, there is often a temptation to have no responsibility. All too often, those who work for themselves tend to put things off until the last minute, and end up rushing the job.

This is because many entrepreneurs find themselves taking off for a special occasion, or just because they don’t feel well. Maybe they even take off for the weekend to spend time with the family. Whatever the case may be, the entrepreneur can often find it easy to put off going back to work. Monday turns into Tuesday, and suddenly the week is almost over and there is a whole week’s worth of work to do. A great deal of self-discipline is required to stay on track and work the hours that you need to work.

Learn More Than One Skill

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Because the successful entrepreneur often has to start their own business all by themselves, they will need to know how to operate every aspect of that business. In order to keep start-up costs low in an economy where funding may be impossible to get, many entrepreneurs put off hiring anyone until the business has already taken off. With that in mind, it is a good idea to learn many skills. Networking and marketing skills to run your own ad campaign, typing, and some computer skills in order to create your own website, business cards, logo, etc, and many more talents can be very helpful in making your venture a success.

Be Different

In 1997, Steve Jobs took over as the CEO of Apple Inc with a brand new slogan, “Think Different.” As many know, he became one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the entire world. In order to be a successful entrepreneur, you must be able to think for yourself and step outside of conventional boundaries. He knows that by following everyone else, he will just end up where they are. The successful entrepreneur will dare to be different and cut the trail that everyone else will follow!

4 Reasons why you need outdoor furniture

Usually, the mention of home décor brings to our mind the indoor furniture, fixtures, and furnishings; outdoor furniture almost never pops into our thought process. Our focus is on, color palettes, themes, etc. to make everything in the house look co-ordinated.

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To make your home look different, it is time to think outside the box, literally outside the box of your home! Think outdoor furniture! Outdoor furniture is trending nowadays not just because of a design fad but because it works it is a differentiator! To make your home stand out from the crowd, you need to do something different, albeit within your budget and this is where outdoor furniture comes in. Let us look at some reasons outdoor furniture is a must-have.

Creative Freedom:

Outdoor furniture allows for a lot of creative freedom. You are free to experiment and choose stuff that appeal to your adventurous nature. Unlike indoor furniture outdoor furniture does not need to match your décor, furnishings etc. You can go in for radically different designs, different materials, and colors as well. Your outdoor furniture will create a world of its own reflecting your outdoor persona.

Economical:

Outdoor furniture is usually at a much lower price point than their indoor counterparts. Its lightweight design and use of unconventional material like cane wood make outdoor furniture quite economical. Also, outdoor furniture online sale is quite common. There are many sales happenings in main metro cities or furniture groups in the towns like Outdoor furniture Mumbai, outdoor furniture Pune, and outdoor furniture Bangalore etc.

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Easy to maintain:

Outdoor furniture is designed to be low maintenance. Minimal or no hosiery makes cleaning them very simple. Regular dusting and an occasional coat of varnish or paint will keep your outdoor furniture as good as new for a long time to come. Also since outdoor furniture is lightweight as compared to indoor furniture they are easier to move around and clean the space under them.

Versatility:

Outdoor furniture can easily be painted to match the season, your mood or even your new wall paint. Since it does not have to gel in with the indoor décor you can go in for a funky look with outdoor furniture whenever the mood strikes you. Red chairs with blue table, or a beautiful white settee with some hand-drawn designs, the sky is the limit to the designs and patterns you can create!

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If need be you can easily move in your outdoor furniture indoor to accommodate more people.

All in all outdoor furniture offers tons of benefits at minimal costing and they also add to the overall look of your home. So go on the shop for some classy or funky outdoor furniture as per your taste and give your home the extra oomph!

Author Bio –

Akshay works as an Interior Designer with Lalco Interiors and he is in love with his job. Thinking up interesting home decor ideas and helping clients implement them is what makes him tick. You can catch up with Akshay and his team and indulge in one of their beautiful home decor pieces for your home at Lalco Interior – Dining Table In Pune.

Important Things to Know During Your Ladakh Trip

Ladakh is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in the world. Apart from its amazing natural beauty, it is welcoming its visitors with age previous monasteries, bright markets, bizarre lanes as well as the beauteous angle of Himalayas. It is not only famous for family trips, but also for the honeymoon. also know more about Leh Ladakh Packages from Mumbai and Ladakh Packages from Mumbai

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Due to the excellent climatic conditions and beautiful places, it is able to attract tourists from different parts of the world. You will be able to find numerous tourist destinations in Ladakh. Therefore, this content provides you with some vital information, which will help you to find the best places in the town. Most of the people who visit any place have to face different troubles, as they do not have proper home elevators it.

There are plenty of amazing places in Ladakh such as Magnetic Hill, Zanskar Valley as well as NubraVelly. These valleys are well known for different factors. Apart from this, there are several historical places to visit in the town also.

When you are visiting Ladakh, you will find different types of transportation services. Apart from taxis, if you are an adventure lover, you also have an option to move biking and discover the aerial area of the city. Apart from this, you can also find many other adventure routines and programs in Ladakh. There are also many hotels and tourist agencies located in the city, which will provide you with different types of packages for the customers.

Therefore, you will be able to select the right one according to your needs and budget. As these agencies provide you guides also, which are familiar with the places, you can discover the best places. These hotels are also providing excellent accommodation services for their guests. When you are looking for Hotels in Ladakh, you will be able to find different options. Apart from the posh star hotels, there are also many mid-course and cheap hotels, which are providing the best services for his or her customers.

However, if you have to find the right hotels, it is crucial to do a proper research. Looking online for these hotels will help you to find the right one. For instance, if you are looking for cheap hotels, you can give the specific search on the internet and find different hotels, which suit your budget. Most of the hotels are also providing the latest amenities and services for his or her customers. You shall be able to enjoy different types of facilities like internet connection, television, telephone etc in your rooms. There are also hotels that are proving other additional services like massage centers, beauty parlors, health centers, yoga centers etc for guests.

When you are looking for hotels online, you shall be able to find websites, which will give home elevators the necessary services provided by the hotels. This will ensure you will have a great stay in Ladakh with the facilities and services. You can also make the booking online prior to your visit to Ladakh.

10 Motivations To Leave For That Outing To Ladakh RIGHT NOW

Late spring is Ladakh time; yes, to me the two are synonymous. Take away Ladakh from summers and I would not need the winters to end. Mercilessly fair. A Ladakh trip is the thing that summers desired, as long as you don’t have skiing someplace in the Alps at the forefront of your thoughts; even with that, I would most likely not change my musings. also know more about Ladakh Tour Packages from Mumbai and Ladakh Trip from Mumbai

In the event that you think you are aware of the considerable number of reasons and places to visit in Ladakh, time for another (and more philosophical) perspective. From another point of view, this is the reason you should visit Leh-Ladakh in summer (or winter!)

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1) To witness what “antiquated” looks like

Mid-year is Ladakh time; yes, to me the two are synonymous. Take away Ladakh from summers and I would not need the winters to end. Severely legitimate. A Ladakh trip is the thing that summers sought, as long as you don’t have skiing someplace in the Alps at the forefront of your thoughts; even with that, I would likely not change my considerations.

On the off chance that you think you are aware of the considerable number of reasons and places to visit in Ladakh, time for another (and more philosophical) perspective. From another point of view, this is the reason you should visit Leh Ladakh in summer (or winter!) –

2) To witness what “old” looks like

More than a colorful goal, as tell our films, Ladakh is an affair for anybody with a pizazz for various culture. A to a great extent Buddhist district, it will charm you with a social ordeal that is wild.

3) To recognize what a ROAD TRIP implies!

Hailed as a standout amongst the most burdensome, tricky, and coolest, street trips in the world, the Manali – Leh road is only a test. Try not to think little of the Srinagar – Leh road too.

4) To comprehend what marvels feel like!

Appropriate from Lamayuru (the Moon Land), salt lakes that stop, and people stories to stories about the Patthar Sahib Gurudwara much acclaimed Magnetic Hill, Ladakh has places that are a sheer enchantment. What’s more, supernatural occurrences.

5) To WATCH nature in its most genuine shape

Tempests pursuing snow pursuing lightning pursuing desert-storms pursuing precipitation pursuing the Sun, Ladakh can be this thus a great deal more with its surprising scene and sudden climate turns. Nature is that way, just nature.

6) To comprehend MINIMALISM

At the point when in Ladakh, you needn’t bother with much. A land that doesn’t develop much, a district that does not comprehend web associations, control supply that can snap (and it does) whenever, loo territories that are only an opening in the ground, yet a populace that stays glad and fulfilled-Ladakh will show you the art of moderation, lessons that you’ll always remember.

7) To leave on a Himalayan success

From Khardung La (hailed as the most noteworthy motorable street on the planet) to Stok Kangri (20187 ft), Ladakh is only difficulties and victory, in the event that you truly wish to call it that. This Himalayan land will test your cutoff points, just in the correct extent, however.

8) To understand what EXTREME means

Ladakh has it; mercury dives quickly around evening time and will make your teeth prattle however you can likewise bite the dust of the brutal Sun in the day; home to (as far as anyone knows) the most elevated motorable street on the planet; India’s most elevated settlement; lakes at an unbelievable height of 4000+ meters and that’s just the beginning-Ladakh is a wide range of outrageous.

9) To REfocustos

A most loved with me, for the Himalayas are an obsession. In the event that life has been dragging you down from all quarters, or you have a craving for being stuck in some kind of drudgery, Ladakh is the place to present to everything on track. A test in itself, it is a place that’ll make you modest and loaded with an appreciation for what all you have in the urban communities. You’ll return more patient and serene than any other time in recent memory.

10) For the love of winters!

Credit: It may sound excessively outrageous and unforgiving, yet spending a winter in Ladakh is a wide range of cool. Go trekking across a solidified waterway, watching India’s just ice-hockey group at work, or dissolving snow to get water for a shower-a December or January in Ladakh can be your own particular Man Vs Wild mystery.

How Do Pest Control Services Slay Those Creepy-Crawlies?

Do you ever wonder how those pest control services kill those creepy-crawlies? Many, if not most, of us have already encountered pests in our lives. Some of us may not consider it a pest unless it causes damage to our property. Thus, having one or two roaming around is still considered normal rather than detrimental (although it’s not hygienic).

Agricultural Commodity Risk Management and Pest Control Services, click here for more interesting details

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However, at some point these pests seem to multiply themselves in no time or call out the whole clan to have a vacation in your house/property, or simply see your property as their future home, trying to oust you from your own territory.

Well, they could very well do that if you fail to manage the problem. Best thing to do is call up pest control services. These are some of the methods that these services use to help you get rid of those unwanted visitors:

1. Non chemical Pest Control.

If you are apprehensive to use pesticides to clear the pests out because you love mother earth and are scared it could harm you and your family, pest control services do offer non chemical ways. One of these is using non chemical solution like insecticidal soap and other non chemical solutions, using sticky barriers or traps.

It all depends what kind of pests you want to get rid of. If it’s rats, traps are better because you catch them alive rather than feeding them poison food and risk having their dead bodies scattered everywhere — not something you want especially when the rat decides to die in a place that is hard to find and you are left with no choice but to bear the foul smell.

2. Chemical Pest Control.

There are times when pest control services would suggest using chemical pest control because it’s the best alternative. This method is best used by a professional to avoid harmful effects. One of the known ways is fumigation or tenting. This is used especially when the pests are concentrated inside a house or a building. The whole building will be “tented” or sealed and a fumigant will be sprayed inside to suffocate the pests.

3. Biological Methods.

This is a new alternative for controlling pests especially in agriculture. However, it can be used by homeowners and gardeners, too. When dealing with insect pests for example, pest control services would suggest that you raise organisms such as predators, parasitoids and pathogens and release it in appropriate numbers to kill the pests.

These organisms are natural enemies of pests. Examples of predators are lady beetles and lace wings. Parasitoids are those microorganisms that live in the host and could kill the host at a significant number; while pathogens are bacteria, fungi or viruses.

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These are only few of the various methods that pest control services use to help you get rid pests in your property. You should always use something that suits your present situation rather than choosing something cheap which is not effective or using something expensive thinking that it is best but is not suitable. If you are unsure, call a professional. There are plenty of pest control services out there.

The Best Recipes Of Candy – Candy Making At Home

The candies are always loved by many people of all ages. When it comes to kids and young children then they are usually very fond of these. The recipes of candy are really amazing and mouth watering. also know more about 4 hour baguette and ragi dates cake

There is no need to purchase these candies from the store all the time. Now with the help of these wonderful and amazing recipes for the candies you can make really delicious candies that would be loved by all. If you really wish to be an expert in candy making then you must read out different candy recipes.

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There are hundreds of different types of candies and you can easily find the recipes of all of them with great ease. You can search for them over the internet and you would come across a wide range of the candy making recipes. The candies can be searched on the basis of their flavors, ingredients or the tastes. You can search for them as there are many websites that only deal with the recipes and ingredients of the candies.

You can easily find the candy recipes that are for the chocolate bonbons, toffees, fudges, divinity, nut brittles and a lot many other sweet recipes. Also, the ingredients of making these candies are easily available and you would not have to spend a lot of your time in search of them. It is now possible to make amazingly delicious and mouthwatering candies at home. If you are a great cook or are fond of making things at home then you should see the recipes for candy making and try making those extremely tasty candies at home.

Sometimes the cost of the candies are high when you purchase them from the bigger store but on the other hand, if you try making those candies at home then you would be able to save a lot of your money. You would also be able to enjoy the same delicious taste by spending a little sum of your money. Candy recipes can be found easily and the next thing which you have to do is to try them at your home.
You can mix different ingredients together and can make a new candy for yourself. If you have children at home then you should try these recipes of candy making and get their love and applause. The children would love these simple recipes that make delicious and sumptuous candies.

The 14 Step Process for Creating a Website Design Interface

Get more details about Website Designer in Mumbai, for best Website Design in Mumbai.

Step 1: Know Your User or Client. To begin, an understanding of the most important system or website component, the user or client, must be obtained. Understanding people and what they do is a critical and often difficult and undervalued process. The first step in the design process involves identifying people’s innate and learned characteristics, and understanding how they affect the design.

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Step 2: Understand the Business Function. A system or Web site must achieve the business objectives for which it is designed. To do so requires an understanding of the goals of the system and the functions and tasks performed.

Determining basic business functions, describing user activities through task analysis, understanding the user’s mental model, and developing a conceptual model of the system accomplish this. The system’s conceptual model must fit the user’s view of the tasks to be performed. Step 2 also addresses the establishment of design standards or style guides, and the definition of training and documentation needs.

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Step 3: Understand the Principles of Good Interface and Screen Design. A well-designed screen must reflect the needs and capabilities of its users, be developed within the physical constraints imposed by the hardware on which it is displayed, and effectively utilize the capabilities of its controlling software.

Step 3involves understanding the capabilities of, and limitations imposed by, people, hardware, and software in designing screens and Web pages. It presents an enormous number of general design guidelines for organizing and presenting information to people.

Step 4: Develop System Menus and Navigation Schemes. Graphical systems and Websites are heavily menu-oriented. Menus are used to designate commands, properties that apply to an object, documents, and windows. To accomplish these goals, a variety of menu styles are available to choose from.

Step 4 involves understanding how menus are used, and selecting the proper kinds for specific tasks. The principles of menu design are described, and the purpose and proper usage of various menu types are detailed. In these step guidelines for Web site navigation are also presented. Topics addressed include the elements of Web navigation such as links, navigation aids, and search facilities.

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Step 5: Select the Proper Kinds of Windows. Graphical screen design consists of a series of windows. Step 5 involves understanding how windows are used and selecting the proper kinds for the tasks. The elements of windows are described, and the purpose and proper usage of various types of windows are detailed. The step concludes with a discussion of Web browsers.

Step 6: Select the Proper Interaction Devices. In addition to the keyboard, a system or Web site might offer the user a mouse, trackball, joystick, graphics tablet, touchscreen, light pen, or some other similar device. Step 6 consists of identifying the characteristics and capabilities of these various control mechanisms and providing the proper ones for users and their tasks.

Step 7: Choose the Proper Screen-Based Controls. The designer is presented with an array of controls to choose from. Selecting the right one for the user and the task is often difficult. But as with interaction devices, making the right choice is critical to system success.

A proper fit between user and control will lead to fast, accurate performance. A poor fit will result in lower productivity, more errors, and often user dissatisfaction. Step 7 consists of identifying the characteristics and capabilities of these various screen-based controls and guidelines for providing the proper ones for users and their tasks.

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Step 8: Write Clear Text and Messages. Creating text and messages in a form the user wants and understands is absolutely necessary for system acceptance and success. Rules for writing text and messages for systems and Web sites are presented.

Step 9: Provide Effective Feedback and Guidance and Assistance. Effective feedback and guidance and assistance are also necessary elements of good design. This step presents the guidelines for presenting to the user feedback concerning the system and its processing status. It also describes the system response times necessary to meet user needs. Step 9 also describes the kinds of guidance and assistance that should be included in a system and presents important design guidelines for various kinds.

Step 10: Provide Effective Internationalization and Accessibility. People from different cultures and people who speak different languages may use graphical systems and Websites. Guidelines for accommodating different cultures and languages in a design are presented. People with disabilities may also be users. Design considerations for these kinds of users are also described.

Step 11: Create Meaningful Graphics, Icons, and Images. Graphics, including icons and images, are an integral part of the design. Design guidelines for various types of graphics are presented. Icons are described, including a discussion of what kinds of icons exist, what influences their usability, and how they should be designed so they are meaningful and recognizable. The elements of the multimedia presentation are also reviewed. Guidelines presented include those for images, photographs, videos, drawings, animation, and audition.

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Step 12: Choose the Proper Colors. Color, if used properly, can emphasize the logical organization of a screen, facilitate the discrimination of screen components, accentuate differences, and make displays more interesting. If used improperly, color can be distracting and cause visual fatigue, impairing a system’s usability. Step 12 involves understanding color and how to use it effectively on textual and statistical graphics screens, and in Web sites.

Step 13: Organize and Layout Windows and Pages. After determining all the components of a screen or page, the screen or page must be organized and its elements presented clearly and meaningfully. Proper presentation and organization will encourage the quick and accurate comprehension of information and the fastest possible execution of user tasks. Step 13 addresses the rules for laying out all screen elements and controls in the most effective manner possible.

Step 14: Test, Test, and Retest. A host of factors must be considered in the design and numerous trade-offs will have been made. Indeed, the design of some parts of the system may be based on skimpy data and simply reflect the most educated guess possible. Also, the implications for some design decisions may not be fully appreciated until the results can be seen.

Waiting until after a system has been implemented to uncover any deficiencies and make any design changes can be aggravating, costly, and time-consuming. To minimize these kinds of problems, interfaces and screens must be continually tested and refined as development proceeds.

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Step 14 reviews the kinds of tests that can be performed, and discusses creating, evaluating, and modifying prototypes in an iterative manner. It also reviews final system testing and ongoing evaluations of working systems.